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In 1923, J. N. Bronsted and T. M. Lowry proposed definitions of acids and bases in aqueous as well as non aqueous solutions according to which

An acid is defined as a substance having a tendency to lose or to donate one or more protons and,

A base is defined as a substance having tendency to accept or add a proton.

Example :

NH3 (g) + HCl (g) NH4+ + Cl-

Base Acid

Here HCl is proton donor (hence acid) and ammonia is a proton acceptor (hence base)

Other examples are :

1) NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Base Acid

2) NH3 (aq) + H3O+ (aq) NH4+ (aq) + H2O (l)

Base Acid

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12.1 - Lowry and Bronsted Concept
12.2 - Conjugate Acid Base Pairs
12.3 - Amphoteric Substance
12.4 - Lewis Acids and Bases
12.5 - Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
12.6 - Dissociation
12.7 - Ostwald's Dilution Law
12.8 - Hydrogen Ion Concentration : pH
12.9 - Polyprotic Acids
12.10 - Salts
12.11 - Methods of Preparation of Salts
12.12 - Properties of Salts

Chapter 13

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