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4.1 Introduction

The union of two or more atoms involving redistribution of electrons either by transfer or sharing between themselves, so that all of them acquire the stable noble gas configuration of minimum energy is known as chemical bonding.

The attraction between atoms within a molecule is called a chemical bond.

Electronic theory of valency :

The electronic theory leads to the following types of combination between atoms.

1) Ionic or Electrovalent Bond :

Involving transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another.

2) Covalent Bond :

Mutual sharing of electrons between two atoms.

Octet rule : Formation of many ionic and covalent compounds can be explained on the basis of the octet rule which states that "Atoms of elements tend to acquire an octet of electrons (i.e. eight electrons) in their outermost shell through combination with other atoms." In doing so they tend to achieve electronic configuration of the nearest inert gas.

However there are some limitations with the octet rule as it fails to explain incomplete and expanded octets.

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4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Ionic Bonds
4.3 The Covalent Bonds
4.4 The Polar Bonds
4.5 Electronegativity
4.6 Others Bonds

Chapter 5

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