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4.3 Covalent Bond

A Covalent Bond is formed due to sharing of electrons between two atoms.

When both the atoms ( similar or dissimilar ) taking part in a chemical combination are short of electrons to complete the nearest inert gas configuration, the combination between them takes place by sharing electrons. Each atom contributes one electron to form a common pair which then is shared by both.

The Bond established between atoms by this process of sharing is known as a covalent bond.

Chlorine molecule is represented as in Figure 8.

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A covalent linkage is expressed by a dash (-) in writing formula. This system of representation of formula of a substance is known as electron dot (lewis) and dash formula.

Other examples of covalent compounds where dissimilar atoms combine are, NH3 and CH4. Their formation is illustrated as follows :

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4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Ionic Bonds
4.3 The Covalent Bonds
4.4 The Polar Bonds
4.5 Electronegativity
4.6 Others Bonds

Chapter 5

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