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8.3 Concentration of Solution

Concentration of Solutions can be expressed in different ways as follows :

i)Weight percentage of solute is the weight of solute
(´ 100), divided by the total weight of the solution.

i.e. 10% w/w of NaCl means 10 gms of NaCl is present in a 100 g of solution.

ii) The molarity, M, of a solution is the number of moles of solute per kg of solvent.

20 M of sodium chloride solution means 20 moles (20 ´ 55.5 gms) of sodium chloride dissolved in a solvent to get one liter of solution.

iii) The molality, m, of a solution is the number of moles of solute per kg of solution.

12 m of sodium chloride solution means 12 moles (12 ´ 55.5 gms) of sodium chloride dissolved in a solvent to get 1 kg of solution.

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iv) The normality, N, of a solution is the number of gram equivalent weight of solute per liter of solution.

5 N of sulphuric acid solution means ( 5 ´ 49 gms ) ( \ eq. wt = mol.wt / no.of equivalents = 98/2 = 49 ) of sulphuric acid dissolved in solvent to get one liter of solution.

v) The mole fraction, X, is the ratio of the number of moles of solute ( or solvent ) to the total number of moles of all components in a solution.

In a 10% HCl solution in H2O

At a glance the concentration of solutions:

 No. Name Symbol Explanation 1 Weight percentage % w/w Weight of solute in percentage in 100 gm of solution. 2 Molarity M Number of moles of solute per liter of solution. 3 Molality m Number of moles of solute per kg of solution. 4 Normality N Number of gram equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution. 5 Mole fraction X Ratio of the number of moles of solute (or solvent) to the total number of moles of all components in a solution.

Index

8.1 Nature of Solution
8.2 Heat of Solutions
8.3 Concentration of Solution
8.4 Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility
8.5 Boiling Point and Freezing Point of Solution

Chapter 9