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The changes in a system with specific reference to interaction with the surroundings through exchange of heat energy constitutes study of thermodynamics for the present purpose.

These interactions obey certain laws, which can be distilled from observations and experiments. The science of thermodynamics is largely phenomenological and as such hardly pays any attention to details of constitution of a thermodynamical system. Attempts to derive laws of thermodynamics as consequences of Newton's laws of motion have never been successful though statistical mechanics based on Newtonian laws incorporates a substantial part of thermodynamics.

The scope of this book permits study of thermodynamics essentially in terms of empirically defined and measured quantities like Heat energy (Q), Temperature (T), Pressure (P) and Work (W).

15.1 Zeroth Law

The concept of temperature is made objective by this law and is defined as the state of thermodynamical system which determines the direction of the flow of heat.

If heat energy is not exchanged between two systems then they are said to be in thermal equilibrium.

"If a system A is in thermal equilibrium with a system B, then they are at the same temperature; if another system C is also in thermal equilibrium with the system A then B and C are also in thermal equilibrium with each other and the temperature of each is same as that of the other."

The above statement is the Zeroth Law of thermodynamics.


15.1 The Zeroth Law
15.2 The First Law
15.3 Work done and Some applications of First Law
15.4 Thermodynamic Processes
15.5 Carnot Cycle
15.6 The Second Law
15.7 Entropy

  Chapter 16

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