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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-World History


Ceylon (Sri Lanka)

The nationalistic and patriotic forces gained momentum during World War I. The Ceylon National Congress was founded in 1919. It demanded definite constitutional reforms. A new constitution was promulgated in 1920, under the governor Sir William Menning. It was amended in 1924 to satisfy nationalist demands. It provided for

(1) an elected majority in the legislature,

(2) an increase in the number of elected members and

(3) communal representation.

The British granted a new constitution in 1932, which enabled Ceylonese leaders to exercise political power and thus to gain experience in the art of administration. The constitution of 1932 was in operation for over 15 years and provided a very valuable experience to the people and their leaders in the democratic process.

Following the general elections in 1956, in which the government party was defeated by nationalists, Ceylon transformed itself into a Republic. Solomon Bandaranaike, the leader of the Socialist Party, became the first Prime Minister. Mrs Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka was the first woman in the world to become a Prime Minister. The country’s name was changed from Ceylon was changed to Sri Lanka, just after its independence.

The Philippines

After 1880, nationalism and a passion for reform, blossomed in the Philippines. On returning to the Philippines from Europe, the Filipino students were able to arouse nationalistic feelings in the people. The nationalists in the Philippines formed the Katipunam under the dynamic leadership of Andres Bonifacio with the sole aim of expelling the Spaniards from the island. There were revolts around Manila and a truce was concluded with the Spaniards in December 1897. In the meantime, war broke out between the USA and Spain. The USA won a brilliant victory at Manila Bay in May, 1898. Spain was forced to sign a peace treaty on December 10, 1898, under which the Philippines was ceded to the USA. However, the Filipino leaders refused to recognize US sovereignty over the islands. This led to two years of warfare between the US and the Philippines. Finally the Philippines accepted the US rule in March, 1901.

In 1916, the Jones Act was passed by the US Congress, granting a measure of autonomy to the Philippines. However, the struggle for complete independence from the US rule, continued. During World War II, the US had promised liberation to the Philippines from its rule. The USA fulfilled this promise, by formally recognizing the Philippines as an independent republican state, on July 4, 1946.


Indonesia

Indonesia, consisting of Java, Sumatra and nearly 3000 other islands, was under the political control of the Dutch imperialists, since the beginning of the 17th century.

In 1912, the Sarekat Islam, the first politically based Indonesian nationalist organization, was founded. It called for immediate self-government. In 1920, the Communist Party of the Indies, or PKI, was established. Another organization known as the Partai National Indonesia (Indonesian Nationalist Party) on PNI was also founded.

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Index

16.0 Introduction
16.1 - The Causes Of The Rise Of Nationalism In Asia
16.2 - Emergence Of India As A Nation
16.3 - Rise Of Modern China
16.4 - Rise Of Modern Japan
16.5 - National Awakening In South East Asia
16.6 - National Awakening In Arab Lands
16.7 - Israel
16.8 - African Nationalism
16.9 - Nationalism In Latin America
16.10 - Dates & Events

Chapter 17





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