The countries of Africa waged struggles for freedom
from European imperialist exploitation thanks to the impact of liberal
forces on the continent.
Several new nations emerged in Africa by 1965.
They included Libya, Sudan, Morocco, Ghana, Tunisia, Guinea, Cameron
Togo, Malagasy Republic, Congo (Leopoldville), Congo (Brazzaville)
Somali Republic, Dahomey, Niger, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Chad,
Central African Republic, Gabon, Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, Mauritania,
Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Burundi, Algeria, Uganda, Tanjania, Kenya,
Malawi, Zambia, U.A.R and Ethiopia.
However, factors such as excessive poverty, illiteracy
and the inadequacy of good leadership caused a lack of stability
in these newly formed states in Africa. Thus for example, in the
Congo (Leopoldville), General Joseph Mobutu, Chief of the Congolese
forces, ousted President Joseph Kasavabu, in a bloodless coup d’etat
in November 1965. Again, in February 1966, President Dr. Kwame Nkrumah
of Ghana was removed from authority and was replaced by Major General
J.A. Ankrah. In January 1966, the Nigerian Prime Minister Sir Abubakar
Tafawa Babewa was overthrown and killed in a coup led by Major Chukwana