In 1900 the Boxer Rebellion broke
out, with the aim of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty and of expelling
all foreigners from the soil of China. However this rebellion was
ruthlessly crushed by the combined armed forces of England, Russia,
Germany, Japan and the U.S.A. In 1901, China was forced to accept
the humiliating terms of the Treaty of Peking with the European
In 1894, Dr. Sun Yat Sen, Father of New
China founded the Chinese Revival Society, later called the
Kuo-Min-Tang or Peoplesí National Party. Dr. Sun developed
a philosophy of nationalism for China. His ideology was "nationalistic,
anti-dynastic, increasingly anti-monarchical and finally republican."
In 1911, there was a revolution which overthrew
the Manchu dynasty; this dynasty had continued to rule for 268 years.
China became a Republic, with Dr. Sun as the first
President. Soon, internal strife began, since General
Yuan, who was in charge of the Northern Provinces, wished
to head the government of the republic. In order to maintain the
unity and solidarity of the Chinese nation, Dr. Sun resigned in
favor of General Yuan. However General Yuan began to govern China
During the World War I, a civil war broke
out, resulting in the establishment of two rival governments; one
was centered at Peking in the North and the other at Canton in the
South. There were many local military rulers in many provinces.
The nationalists under Dr. Sun were driven out
of Peking in this civil strife. They established a rival government
at Canton. In 1921, Dr. Sun was elected President of the
Chinese Republic. Dr. Sunís national philosophy consisted
of three main ideals:
(1) Nationalism, i.e. to make China a
nation-state and to free it from foreign control;
(2) Sovereignty of the people, i.e. establishment
of democracy in the country and
(3) Socialism i.e. "the needs of
all, should be supplied, as far as possible, by the efforts of all."
However, before achieving his goal, Dr. Sun expired
on March 12, 1925.
Dr. Sun Yat Sen was succeeded by General Chiang
Kai Shek, his trusted follower. In June 1928, Chiang Kai Shek
led his armies into Peking and overthrew the Peking government.
The unification of all China, under the Kuo-Min-Tang, was thus nearly
complete. Chiang Kai Shek became the head of the government of United
China. However, politically and economically, the government
of Chiang Kai Shek was so weak, that it could not prevent Japan,
from annexing Manchuria in 1931.