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  1. Two classes, the capitalist and the laboring classes were created by the Revolution. The capitalists were the masters of industries, the managers of mills and the proprietors of workshops, who amassed great wealth, owing to a high profit margin. The laboring class, was a mere tool in the factories. Thus, the gap between the rich and the poor went on widening.

  2. England grew very wealthy on account of industrialization. It became a leading country, in the field of industry, trade, commerce and finance.

B. The Industrial Revolution also had many Social effects

  1. The Revolution had a harmful effect on family life. All the family members used to help the head of the family, in the family profession before the advent of the Revolution. With the Revolution, the father and at times, the entire family shifted to a nearby city for employment in factories and mills. This led to the growth of new cities in Great Britain, which broadened the people’s outlook.

  2. The cities were over crowded, owing to migration from villages and also because of high birth rates. The housing shortage in the city forced people to live in dull and dingy rooms. It also led to the creation of slums, which caused various diseases and premature deaths.

  3. Where the parents were too old, the children had to earn. The easy availability of women and children for working in mills, led to low wages and unemployment. The factory owners preferred to employ unskilled workers, since they were cheaper.

  4. Home life was poisoned due to such pathetic conditions. The standards of morality decreased. Women and children imitated such vices as drinking, which were noticeable only among men.

  5. Finally, the comforts and luxuries in people’s lives increased, owing to the inventions in the various fields. The new means of transport and communications and the new methods of production served to be a boon to mankind in an important way.

C. The Industrial Revolution encouraged Colonialism and Imperialism

England, the U.S.A., Russia and many European countries built large colonial empires. They needed colonies for securing raw materials at low prices for their industries. They also used the colonies as markets for setting their finished products at high prices.

D. However, many problems were created for labor

  1. The life of the working classes grew miserable and burdensome. A factory or mill worker toiled for fourteen or sixteen hours a day. Many factories or mills had no sanitation facilities. They did not even have safety guards on machines which led to frequent accidents. There were no provisions for the care of the injured and the sick.


8.0 - Introduction
8.1 Meaning
8.2 Features of Industrial Revolution
8.3 Origin of Industrial Revolution
8.4 Course of Industrial Revolution
8.5 Spread of Industrial Revolution
8.6 Consequences of Industrial Revolution
8.7 Dates & Events
8.8 Points to Remember

Chapter 9


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