Two classes, the capitalist and the
laboring classes were created by the Revolution. The capitalists
were the masters of industries, the managers of mills and the
proprietors of workshops, who amassed great wealth, owing to
a high profit margin. The laboring class, was a mere tool in
the factories. Thus, the gap between the rich and the poor went
England grew very wealthy on
account of industrialization. It became a leading country,
in the field of industry, trade, commerce and finance.
B. The Industrial Revolution also had many Social
C. The Industrial Revolution encouraged Colonialism and
The Revolution had a harmful effect
on family life. All the family members used to help the
head of the family, in the family profession before the advent
of the Revolution. With the Revolution, the father and at times,
the entire family shifted to a nearby city for employment in
factories and mills. This led to the growth of new cities in
Great Britain, which broadened the people’s outlook.
The cities were over crowded, owing
to migration from villages and also because of high birth rates.
The housing shortage in the city forced people to live in dull
and dingy rooms. It also led to the creation of slums, which
caused various diseases and premature deaths.
Where the parents were too old, the children
had to earn. The easy availability of women and children for
working in mills, led to low wages and unemployment. The factory
owners preferred to employ unskilled workers, since they were
Home life was poisoned due to such pathetic
conditions. The standards of morality decreased. Women
and children imitated such vices as drinking, which were noticeable
only among men.
Finally, the comforts and luxuries in
people’s lives increased, owing to the inventions in the
various fields. The new means of transport and communications
and the new methods of production served to be a boon to mankind
in an important way.
England, the U.S.A., Russia and many European countries
built large colonial empires. They needed colonies for securing
raw materials at low prices for their industries. They also used
the colonies as markets for setting their finished products at high
D. However, many problems were created for labor
The life of the working classes
grew miserable and burdensome. A factory or mill
worker toiled for fourteen or sixteen hours a day. Many factories
or mills had no sanitation facilities. They did not even have
safety guards on machines which led to frequent accidents. There
were no provisions for the care of the injured and the sick.
8.2 Features of Industrial Revolution
8.3 Origin of Industrial Revolution
8.4 Course of Industrial Revolution
8.5 Spread of Industrial Revolution
8.6 Consequences of Industrial Revolution
8.7 Dates & Events
8.8 Points to Remember