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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-World History

19.1 Achievements in Physics

Rapid progress was made in physics thanks to the impetus provided by the Industrial Revolution in England.

The scientific achievements of Volta, Oersted and Faraday in Electro-magnetism, enabled Samuel Morse, in 1844, to invent the electric telegraph. Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Watson, worked on a harmonic telegraph, and thus was born the telephone in 1876. In 1877, Thomas Alva Edison invented the first phonograph.

The renowned German Physicist Heinrich R. Hertz created Hertzian waves, popularly known as "radio waves." Luigi Palmieri an Italian physicist invented the seismograph. G. Marconi sent the first radio signals and became the Father of Wireless Telegraphy.

Herman Von Helmholtz invented the opthalmoscope, while William Thomson developed the mariner’s compass.

Sir William Crooks studied the passage of electricity through tubes known as ’Crooks tubes.’

In 1895, William K. Roentgen discovered X-Rays.

Modern physics was fostered by John Dalton and Max Planck. Max Planck came forward with a new theory on light. He also propounded the quantum theory; which explained the properties of the atom.

The world witnessed the birth of nuclear physics with Roentgen’s discovery of X-Rays.


Exhibit 19.1
Marie Curie with her husband, Pierre Curie

Another important development in this field was made by the French couple Pierre and Marie Curie, who discovered that Radium emits radiation. Albert Einstein predicted that by splitting the atom, tremendous energy can be released. This theory paved the way for the production of the atom bomb which was used by the Americans on Hiroshima and Nagasaki with catastrophic results. Thus the Age of the Atom began from the middle of the 20th century.

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19.1 - Achievements In Physics
19.2 - Achievements In Chemistry
19.3 - Achievements In Biology
19.4 - Achievements In Medicine And Surgery
19.5 - Innovations In Transport And Communication
19.6 - Dates & Events

Chapter 20


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