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12.1 Lowry and Bronsted Concepts of Acids and Bases

The classification of substances of acids was at first suggested by their sour taste (Latin acidus = Sour) and alkali (Arabic alkali = ashes of a plant) were taken as those substances that could reverse or neutralize the action of acids.

The classical definition of

ACID : as a substance whose water solution

i) turns blue litmus red

ii) neutralizes base

iii) reacts with active metals like Zn, Mg, Cu etc with evolution of H2

iv) having sour taste

v) decomposes carbonates

The following chart shows different types of acid.

Click here to Enlarge
Figure 23.

BASE : as a substance whose water solution

i) turns red litmus blue

ii) neutralizes acid to produce salts

iii) tastes bitter

iv) soapy to touch

v) reacts with few metals like Zn, Al, Pb etc liberating hydrogen.

Examples : NaOH, KOH, NH4OH

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12.1 - Lowry and Bronsted Concept
12.2 - Conjugate Acid Base Pairs
12.3 - Amphoteric Substance
12.4 - Lewis Acids and Bases
12.5 - Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
12.6 - Dissociation
12.7 - Ostwald's Dilution Law
12.8 - Hydrogen Ion Concentration : pH
12.9 - Polyprotic Acids
12.10 - Salts
12.11 - Methods of Preparation of Salts
12.12 - Properties of Salts

Chapter 13

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