PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-World History
In 1945, several displaced Jews from Europe, migrated
to Palestine. The native Arab inhabitants highly resented this development.
The country witnessed serious riots as a result. In November 1947,
the U.N. voted for the partition of Palestine into two independent
states, Jewish and Arab, as well as the internationalization of
the sacred city of Jerusalem. However the proposal was neither accepted
by the Jews or the Arabs.
In May 1948, Great Britain abandoned its mandate
over Palestine. The Jewish leaders took this opportunity to proclaim
the independence of the Republic of Israel. This was followed by
a war between the neighboring Arab states of Syria, Lebanon, Iran,
Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Egypt on one side against Israel. But thanks
to the timely intervention of the U.N., an armistice was signed
between Israel and the Arab states. Israel occupied nearly 8,000
square miles of Palestine, out of a total of 10,500. In 1949, a
democratic constitution was adopted by the new Israeli state. It
elected the veteran Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann as its president,
and was admitted to the U.N. in the same year.
The Arab State of Hejaz which included the
Moslem holy cities of Mecca and Medina, was a nominally independent
state under King Hussein. The dependence of King Hussein
on Great Britain, fired the patriotic opposition of the Moslems.
The situation however, was fully exploited by Abdul Aziz Ibn
Saud, Sultan of Nejd, and leader of the Wahabis.
Abdul Aziz invaded Hejaz in 1925, when Hussein abdicated the throne.
His son Ali was defeated and expelled, and Mecca was captured. In
1926, Abdul Aziz bore the title of "King of Hejaz and Nejd".
Then he brought the whole of the Arabian Peninsula under his control.
In 1932, he transformed, "Hejaz and Nejd" into Saudi Arabia
and gave a novel political unity to it.
The nationalist patriots formed the native Nationalist
Party, under the moving spirit of Saad Zaghlul. However,
the British protectorate over Egypt was recognized by the Paris
Peace Settlement (1919) and the Treaty of Sevres of 1923.
In 1919, Saad Zaghlul was arrested and deported
to the Island of Malta. Lord Milner then visited Egypt and under
his recommendations, a treaty was signed in 1921, between Great
Britain and Sultan Ahmed Faud whereby Egypt became a nominally independent
state with Ahmed Faud as its king. Since the treaty
was rejected by the Nationalist followers of Zaghlul, it was enforced
unilaterally by the British government in 1922. In 1923, the Nationalists
emerged with maximum authority in the Egyptian Parliament. Hence
they recalled Zaghlul from exile to form a native ministry. Though
Zaghlul died in 1927, the Nationalist government could wring concessions
from Great Britain, that had signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty on
August 26, 1936. By this Treaty, Britain was authorized to station
a maximum of 10,000 soldiers on the Suez Canal, for a period of
16.1 - The Causes Of The Rise Of Nationalism
16.2 - Emergence Of India As A Nation
16.3 - Rise Of Modern China
16.4 - Rise Of Modern Japan
16.5 - National Awakening In South East Asia
16.6 - National Awakening In Arab Lands
16.7 - Israel
16.8 - African Nationalism
16.9 - Nationalism In Latin America
16.10 - Dates & Events