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PinkMonkey Online Study Guide-World History


In 1945, several displaced Jews from Europe, migrated to Palestine. The native Arab inhabitants highly resented this development. The country witnessed serious riots as a result. In November 1947, the U.N. voted for the partition of Palestine into two independent states, Jewish and Arab, as well as the internationalization of the sacred city of Jerusalem. However the proposal was neither accepted by the Jews or the Arabs.

In May 1948, Great Britain abandoned its mandate over Palestine. The Jewish leaders took this opportunity to proclaim the independence of the Republic of Israel. This was followed by a war between the neighboring Arab states of Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Egypt on one side against Israel. But thanks to the timely intervention of the U.N., an armistice was signed between Israel and the Arab states. Israel occupied nearly 8,000 square miles of Palestine, out of a total of 10,500. In 1949, a democratic constitution was adopted by the new Israeli state. It elected the veteran Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann as its president, and was admitted to the U.N. in the same year.

Saudi Arabia

The Arab State of Hejaz which included the Moslem holy cities of Mecca and Medina, was a nominally independent state under King Hussein. The dependence of King Hussein on Great Britain, fired the patriotic opposition of the Moslems. The situation however, was fully exploited by Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, Sultan of Nejd, and leader of the Wahabis. Abdul Aziz invaded Hejaz in 1925, when Hussein abdicated the throne. His son Ali was defeated and expelled, and Mecca was captured. In 1926, Abdul Aziz bore the title of "King of Hejaz and Nejd". Then he brought the whole of the Arabian Peninsula under his control. In 1932, he transformed, "Hejaz and Nejd" into Saudi Arabia and gave a novel political unity to it.


Egypt

The nationalist patriots formed the native Nationalist Party, under the moving spirit of Saad Zaghlul. However, the British protectorate over Egypt was recognized by the Paris Peace Settlement (1919) and the Treaty of Sevres of 1923.

In 1919, Saad Zaghlul was arrested and deported to the Island of Malta. Lord Milner then visited Egypt and under his recommendations, a treaty was signed in 1921, between Great Britain and Sultan Ahmed Faud whereby Egypt became a nominally independent state with Ahmed Faud as its king. Since the treaty was rejected by the Nationalist followers of Zaghlul, it was enforced unilaterally by the British government in 1922. In 1923, the Nationalists emerged with maximum authority in the Egyptian Parliament. Hence they recalled Zaghlul from exile to form a native ministry. Though Zaghlul died in 1927, the Nationalist government could wring concessions from Great Britain, that had signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty on August 26, 1936. By this Treaty, Britain was authorized to station a maximum of 10,000 soldiers on the Suez Canal, for a period of 20 years.

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Index

16.0 Introduction
16.1 - The Causes Of The Rise Of Nationalism In Asia
16.2 - Emergence Of India As A Nation
16.3 - Rise Of Modern China
16.4 - Rise Of Modern Japan
16.5 - National Awakening In South East Asia
16.6 - National Awakening In Arab Lands
16.7 - Israel
16.8 - African Nationalism
16.9 - Nationalism In Latin America
16.10 - Dates & Events

Chapter 17





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